SSDL Motivating to Increase Self-Direction

Motivational Strategies for Increasing Self-Direction in Learners

By Gerald Grow

Draft of a sequel to “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed.”

In order to think about how to motivate underachieving students, you have to start with some kind of model for (1) how students differ from one another, and (2) how students can change over time. Unless your model allows that students can change, there is no use trying to motivate underachieving students. Because students come in more than one kind, different kinds of students require different kinds of motivation. Because students can change over time, the kind of motivation a student needs can also change over time.

These lines of thinking easily take you to theories of learning style and theories of student development, with the result that you may soon be considering how to motivate students with each of, say, 16 different kinds of learning styles who, in turn, are at each of the stages of, say, Perry’s stages of development during the college years. This approach results in too many variables for a teacher to handle in a classroom.

One alternative is to adopt a simplified model that combines a concept of student types with a concept of how students change over time. This paper proposes such a model and shows how a teacher might use it to choose motivational methods for students in different stages.

The model proposed here to represent student development and teacher response – the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model (SSDL) – was described in the author’s article, “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed.” As its starting point, it uses Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership model of management. In the SSDL, the most important characterization of student differences is the degree to which students are ready to take charge of their learning – which is described in four stages, from the dependent learner, through the interested (or interest-able) learner, through the involved learner, to an ideal stage of the self-directed learner.

For students in each stage, the teacher applies methods to do two things: (1) match the students’ stage of self-direction, and (2) prepare the student to advance to a higher stage of self-direction. Details on students and teachers, as viewed in this model, may be found in the article cited. Basically, teachers are recommended to approach dependent learners with a highly directive teaching style; interested students with a selling or motivating style; participating students with a facilitative style; and self-directed students with a delegating style, as shown in Figure 1 from “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed”:


Figure 1 introduces the four stages of the SSDL model, which were inspired by the four leadership styles described in Situational Leadership.

Figure 1. The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model.

From “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed” by Gerald Grow. 

The teacher’s purpose is to match the learner’s stage of self-direction and prepare the learner to advance to higher stages.

This paper will use the SSDL model to portray the fundamental differences in approach that students take toward learning as they move from lesser to greater degrees of self-direction. It will then use Keller’s ARCS model to organize a collection of potential motivational strategies that may be suitable to use with students in each of the SSDL’s four stages of student development toward self-direction.

How this paper is organized

This paper first introduces one of the four stages of student progression from dependency to self-direction (S1–S4), then, appropriate to each student stage, we list motivational activities selected from five sources:

(W) indicates a strategy taken from Wlodkowski

(K) from Keller

(A) from Ames and Ames

(WR) from Wyche-Smith and Rose

(G) identifies strategies added by Grow, the author of this paper.

Within each stage S1–S4, the motivational activities are grouped into Keller’s four categories of emphasis:

  • Attention,
  • Relevance,
  • Confidence, and
  • Satisfaction.

Thus, for the S1 dependent learner, you will find a brief description of a learner in Stage 1, followed by motivational activities appropriate for a student in this stage related to Keller’s categories of Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS). And so on for student stages S2–S4.

In making this list, the author first grouped motivational strategies that seem to match the characteristics of learners and activities of teachers in each stage of the model. Then the strategies were further divided into Keller’s ARCS categories. Within each ARCS category, then, strategies were analyzed into related groups.

The brief summaries of student stages S1–S4 are adapted from the author’s “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed.”

S1: Dependent, Low-Maturity Learners; Instruction: “Telling”

Students at the S1 level are basically unable and unwilling, not competent or confident. Unwillingness may result from insecurity. May be rebellious, subversive, resistant.

Attributional Assumptions: “Teacher is responsible for motivating and developing ability of students. Students believe they have little motivation or ability to complete the task.” (A)

Instructor roles: authority figure, expert, director, coach, drill sergeant, professor, lecturer. Students are told what, when, where, and how. Close supervision. Well-defined goals, clear, specific directions, tight structure, and close supervision combine to ensure that students work in a well-defined and successful manner. Emphasis is on the task at hand, the subject matter itself, the skills involved. Performance-oriented; emphasize deadlines. Avoid too much supportive behavior at this stage. Avoid giving students options. Communication is one-way. Grading rigorous and objective. Teacher acts consistently, using uniform procedures. Teacher monitors student performance closely. Feedback is immediate and impartial.

Examples: Lecture course. Structured drills.

Models: Coaches in sports, drama, music. Vocabulary and spelling drill. A karate instructor. The teacher as performer. Evangelists. An orchestra conductor at the phase of getting the mechanics of the music right.

S1 Attention Strategies

Begin lesson with short statement of goals. (A)

Introduce, connect, and end learning activities attractively and clearly. (W)

Make learner reaction and active participation an essential part of the learning process. (W)

Provide frequent response opportunities to all learners on an equitable basis. (W)

Selectively use knowledge and comprehension questions to stimulate learner interest. (W)

When appropriate, deal with and encourage the expression of emotions during learning. (W)

Challenge the learners. Also: Introduce minor challenges during instruction. (W)

Use unpredictability and uncertainty to the degree that learners enjoy them with a sense of security. (W)

Use humor liberally and frequently. (W)

Where appropriate, use plays on words during redundant information presentation. (K)

Provide variety in personal presentation style, methods of instruction, and learning materials. (W)

Selectively use breaks, physical exercises, and energizers. (W)

When appropriate, help learners to directly experience cognitive concepts on a physical and emotional level. (W)

Selectively use examples, analogies, metaphors, and stories. (W)

Use content-related anecdotes, case studies, biographies, etc. (K)

Show visual representations of any important object or set of ideas or relationships. (K)

S1 Relevance Strategies

Find out what learners’ interests are and relate them to the instruction. (K)

Use needs assessment techniques to discover and emphasize the felt needs of learners in the learning process. (W)

When relevant, select content, examples, and projects that relate to the physiological and safety needs of learners. (W)

State explicitly how the instruction relates to future activities of the learner. (K)

Help learners to realize their accountability for what they are learning. (K)

Model enthusiasm for the subject taught. (K)

State explicitly the present intrinsic value of learning the content, as distinct from its value as a link to future goals. (K)

State explicitly how instruction builds on learner’s existing skills. (K)

Review previous, prerequisite learnings. (A)

Introduce the unfamiliar through the familiar. (W) Use analogies familiar to learner from past experience. (K)

Selectively use application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation questions and tasks to stimulate learner involvement. (W)

S1 Confidence Strategies

Create a learning environment that is organized and orderly. (W)

Incorporate clearly stated, appealing learning goals into instructional materials. (K)

Give detailed instructions and explanations; break assignments into small steps. (A)

Organize materials on an increasing level of difficulty; that is, structure the learning material to provide a “conquerable challenge.”   (K)

Make the first experience with the subject as positive as possible. (W)

Provide close guidance during initial practice. (A)

Ensure successful learning. (W) Frequently check for student understanding. (A)

Reward incremental steps toward larger goals. (G)

Encourage the learner. (W)

Reduce or remove components of the learning environment that lead to failure or fear. (W)

Associate the learner with other learners who are enthusiastic about the subject. (W)

Whenever possible, use performance evaluation procedures to help the learner realize how to operationalize in daily living what has been learned. (W)

To enhance achievement-striving behavior, provide opportunities to achieve standards of excellence under conditions of moderate risk. (K)

Provide consistent feedback to learners regarding their mastery, progress, and responsibility in learning. (W) Give frequent, systematic positive feedback, reinforcement, and corrections. (A)

When learning tasks are suitable to their ability, help learners to understand that effort and persistence can overcome their failures. (W)

Include statements about the likelihood of success with given amounts of effort and ability. (K)

Positively confront the possible erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may underlie a negative learner attitude. (W)


S1 Satisfaction Strategies

Provide motivating feedback (praise) immediately following task performance. (K)

Give personal attention to students. (K)

Give verbal praise for successful progress or accomplishment. (K) Provide frequent reinforcements when a student is learning a new task. (K) Have high level of active practice with continuous reinforcement. (A) Provide informative, helpful feedback when it is immediately useful. (K)

Consider the use of extrinsic reinforcers for routine, well-learned activities, complex skill building, and drill-and-practice activities. (W)

Reward boring tasks with extrinsic, anticipated rewards. (K) Use incentives to encourage participation in learning activities that are initially unattractive. (W)

Encourage or provide a reinforcing event for positive closure at the end of significant units of learning. (K)

Avoid the use of threats as a means of obtaining task performance. (K)

Avoid surveillance (as opposed to positive attention). (K)

Help learners to attribute their success to their ability and their effort. (W)

Acknowledge and affirm the learners’ responsibility and any significant actions or characteristics that contributed to the successful completion of the learning task. (K)

Plan activities to allow learners to share and to publicly display their projects and skills. (K)


S2: Learners of Moderate Maturity/Independence; Instruction: “Selling”


Students at this stage are willing but not yet able to take responsibility and perform well. They are confident but still ignorant of the subject of instruction. Willing to go along with anything they can see a reason for. Interested, or at least interestable.

Attributional Assumptions: “Teacher is responsible for teaching and coaching specific steps of self-motivation and involving student in process of improving his or her ability. Students believe they have some ability but need help in acquiring skill and in maintaining motivation.” (A)

Instructor roles: “selling,” persuading, explaining, directive but also supportive; reinforce learner willingness and enthusiasm. Learners at this stage go along if they understand why and the instructor provides direction and help. Communication is two-way. Encouragement, persuasion. Teacher explains and justifies assignments, persuades students of its value. Teacher remains open for changes, but remains focused on the task. Face-to-face meetings help.

Examples: Lecture-discussion. Teacher-led discussion. Demonstration.

Models: Good teacher-led classes. Directive therapy with willing clients.


S2 Attention Strategies

Shift between student-instructor interaction and student-student interaction. (K)

Use games, role plays, or simulations that require learner participation. (K)

Build in problem solving activities at regular intervals. (K)

Use creativity techniques to have students create unusual analogies and associations to the content. (K)

Introduce a fact that seems to contradict the learner’s past experience. (K)

Present an example that does not seem to exemplify a given concept.

Confront students directly about misbehavior; discuss what they can do to engage in more positive behavior. (A)


S2 Relevance Strategies

When issuing mandatory assignments, give your rationale. (W)

Provide learners with the opportunity to select topics. projects, and assignments that appeal to their curiosity, sense of wonder, and need to explore. (W)

Selectively emphasize and deal with the human perspective of what is being learned, with application to the personal daily lives of the learners. (W)

Ask learners to relate the instruction to their own future goals. (K)

When relevant, select content, examples, and projects that relate to: love and belongingness needs of the learners; learner values. (W)

To satisfy the need for affiliation, establish trust and provide opportunities for no-risk, cooperative interaction. (K)

Bring in alumni of the course as enthusiastic guest lecturers. (K)

S2 Confidence Strategies

Make the learning goal as clear as possible. (W) Keep problem focused, and help students identify strategies they can use to solve the problems–both learning and behavior problems. (A)

Announce the expected amount of time needed for study and practice for successful learning. (W)

Explain the criteria for evaluation of performance. (K) Have students practice using the list of criteria to evaluate themselves on an assignment. (A)

Minimize any negative conditions that surround the subject. (W)

Allow for introductions. (W)

Help students make a plan for completing specific projects–starting with short projects and moving to longer ones. (A)

Show students how to break task down into subgoals. Model this and have students practice it. (A)

When making an assignment, help students brainstorm lists of strategies for getting the project done. Help them analyze the effectiveness of these strategies.

Continue to reward incremental steps toward larger goals. (G)

Give students practice in setting realistic goals and devising strategies to accomplish those goals. (A)

Use formative evaluative procedures to measure and commmunicate learner progress and mastery. (W)

Use imagery techniques to help learners clearly remember specific problems or tasks that are relevant to the knowledge or skill being taught. (W)

Offer the opportunity for responsible attainment of knowledge, skills, and learning goals that relate to the esteem needs of the learners. (W)

Hold discussions with students about the role their own effort plays in their productive work. (A)

Phase out praise; phase in encouragement. Deflect students from sterile perfectionism and toward celebrating genuine accomplishment. (G)


S2 Satisfaction Strategies

Provide intermittent reinforcement as student becomes more competent at a task. (K)

Monitor somewhat closely, but give feedback first by asking students to examine and evaluate their own work, cueing them to relevant information as necessary. (A)

Verbally reinforce a student’s intrinsic pride in accomplishing a difficult task. (K)

Reward intrinsically interesting task performance with unexpected, non-contingent rewards.   (K)

Encourage students to feel good about successful completion of a project or a step toward completion. (A)

Allow a student to use a new skill in a realistic setting as soon as possible. (K)

When learning has natural consequences, help learners to be aware of them as well as their impact. (W)

Create components in the learning environment that tell learners they are accepted and respected participating members of the group. (W)

Create opportunities and conditions for the flow experience. (W)


S3: Learners of Intermediate Maturity/Independence; Instruction: “Participating”


Students at this stage are able, but may be unwilling–perhaps because of insecurity of lack of confidence. They may be unwilling due to motivational problems. They want to be involved and respected for who they are and what they can do.

Attributional Assumptions: “Students are responsible for using acquired ability to solve problems and for maintaining motivation and enthusiasm for assignment with encouragement from the teacher. Students believe they have ability and motivation as long as supportive environment is available.”

Instructor roles: “participating,” motivating, supportive. Instructor and students share in decision making. Students are involved in setting goals and defining standards. Instructor concentrates on facilitation, communication, encouragement, motivation. Supports students in using the skills they have. In this stage, students often undertake group projects.

Examples: seminar with instructor participating as an equal. Student group projects approved and facilitated (but not directed) by instructor. Lab projects.

Models: Literature on using groups in instruction. Developmental approach modeled on British Infant School. Humanistic group therapies. Handbooks for group facilitators. (Pfeiffer). Training literature for competent adult learners.

S3 Attention Strategies

Give learners the opportunity to select topics projects and assignments that appeal to their curiosity and need to explore. (K)

Redirect attention: What do YOU think? (G)

Assign students to work in groups on focused projects. (G)

Facilitate self-direction, goal setting, and the articulation of student values (G)

Play devil’s advocate. (K)


S3 Relevance Strategies

Provide opportunities for self-directed learning. (W)

Provide personal choices for organizing one’s work. (K)

Provide meaningful alternative methods for accomplishing a goal. (K)

Promote the learner’s personal control of the context of learning. (W)

Teach students goal-setting (G)

To make instruction responsive to the power motive, provide opportunities for responsibility, authority, and interpersonal influence. (K)

In a self-paced course, use those who finish first as deputy tutors.(K)

S3 Confidence Strategies

Attribute student success to effort, rather than to luck or ease of task when appropriate (i.e., when you know it’s true!) (K)

Encourage student efforts to verbalize appropriate attributions for both successes and failures. (K)

Have students learn new skills under low risk conditions, but practice performance of well-learned tasks under realistic conditions. (K)

Allow students opportunity to become increasingly independent in leaning and practicing a skill. (K) Reinforce students for working independently. (A)

Remind students that they already know how to break a task down into subgoals, make plans for accomplishing these goals, and monitor their own progress. Encourage them to engage in these self-motivational behaviors. (A)

Teach students how to develop a plan of work that will result in goal accomplishment. (K)

Use contracting methods. (W)

Provide self-evaluation tools which are based on clearly stated goals. (K)

Generally, let students initiate requests for help. (A)

Be available to help students set realistic goals if they need help. (A)

If students come for help, help them identify the problem, allow them to develop solutions to the problem, and encourage them to continue working on their own. (A)

Listen to students as equals in learning (but not as equals in authority). (G)

When students need feedback, ask them for their own self-evaluation first, and ask them to give good reasons for that self-evaluation. (A)

Encourage students to keep trying; tell them you know that they know how to do it. Help them build confidence by trying it on their own. (A)

When students misbehave, ask them to describe what they are doing, to evaluate their behavior, and encourage them to follow through on their plan for improvement. (A)

Encourage learners to work together (G)

Encourage learners to encourage one another (G)

Use cooperative goal structures to develop and maximize cohesiveness in the learning group. (W)

Learn more about own and others’ learning strategies (G)

Learn more about personality types as a basic relational skill (G)

Expand repertoire of tools and strategies (G)

Learn advanced conceptual tools in the field (G)


S3 Satisfaction Strategies

Avoid external evaluations whenever it is possible to help the student evaluate his or her own work. (K)

Allow a student who masters a task to help others who have not yet done so. (K)

Vary the schedule of reinforcements in both interval and quantity. (K)

S4: Learners of High Maturity/Independence; Instruction: “Delegating”


Students at this stage are confident, both able and willing to take responsibility for their learning, direction, and productivity. Students run the show and decide how, when, and where. Students exercise skills of time management, project management, goal-setting, self-evaluation, peer critique, information gathering, and using educational resources as needed. Learning is inner-driven and may be project-oriented. Students need autonomy.

Attributional Assumptions: “Students are responsible for own motivation and using their ability to solve problems; believe they have motivation and ability to do work.” Such independence may be task-specific.

Instructor roles: “delegating,” with little direction or support. Instructor allows students to formulate their own roles, encourages them to work out their own problems, and remains available on an informal basis (A). Due to psychological maturity of students, instructor reduces both two-way communication and reinforcements. Relationship between instructor and students is collegial and distinctly not intense, except for mentoring relationships; relationship is high between students and world, students and task, and among students. Instructor monitors progress to ensure success, steps in only to assist students in acquiring the skills to be self-directing and self-monitoring. Instructor weans student of being taught, but provides essential feedback and support to keep student on track.

Examples: Internship, term projects, independent study, senior project, dissertation. Student-directed discussion with teacher involved mainly as asked to join. Student newspaper or magazine with faculty sponsor. Creative writing.

Models: Non-directive therapies and meditation. Consultants. Writing coach for professional reporters. Inservice teacher training. Group facilitation. Mentoring.


There are few motivational strategies for learners independent enough to fall under the S3 and S4 categories, mainly because such learners are, by definition, less in need of external motivation. At this point, internal motivation takes over and the quest becomes for internal motivation, learning strategies, self-esteem, curiosity, skill in the use of information resources, and ability to make use of available educational resources.


S4 Attention Strategies

Begin discussions and self-directed study by posing important questions. (G)

Introduce for discussion two equally plausible facts or principles, only one of which can be true. (K)

Be sounding board for learner’s ideas. (G)

Acquaint learner with new sources of information. (G)

Network learner with others in subject area. (G)

Review learner’s project management plan. (G)

Monitor and celebrate learner’s milestones. (G)


S4 Relevance Strategies

Expect students to review on their own what they already have learned. (A)

Let students set own short- and long-term goals. (A)

Allow students to set own action plan for how they will complete projects and assignments. (A)

Send learner reprints of important articles. (G)

Share new applications and solutions. (G)

Advanced students tutor beginners. (G)

Dissertation links student to scholarship of profession. (G)

Internship links student to working world of profession. (G)


S4 Confidence Strategies

Pass along compliments you have heard. (G)

Offer collegial suggestions on improving learner’s work. (G)

Expect students to monitor their own progress, work through difficulties themselves, and only call on you as a last resort. (A)

Let students work through difficulties they have on an assignment on their own. (A)

Expect students to reward themselves for intermediate and long-term goal accomplishment. (A)

Provide little or no teacher guidance.

Ask advice of learner. (G)

Ask learner to do something for you. (G)

Discuss with learner the major unsolved problems of the field. (G)


S4 Satisfaction Strategies

Be comfortable knowing that students desire to do well, will think about success, and will feel bad if they fail. (A)

Give infrequent feedback–mainly at the conclusion of assignments. (A)

Give complete attention when learner approaches you to discuss progress. (G)

Share your ideas-in-progress with learner. (G)

Suggest topics learner can write about for publication. (G)

Ask learner to coauthor an article. (G)

Collaborate on books and articles with junior colleagues and graduate students (WR)

Organize colloquia for to share research, conference papers, and drafts for publication (WR)

Share successful course materials with other faculty (WR)

Pool resources with other writing instructors (WR)

Volunteer to be a mentor (WR)

Request subscriptions to relevant journals (WR)

Awards and recognitions from school and professional groups. (G)



A major part of my purpose has been to point out that not all students can be motivated using the same strategies, and that a given student may require different kinds of motivation in different situations or at different times. These differences are a consequence of the twin facts that students differ from one another, and no student remains the same for long. Indeed, it is to be hoped that many successful courses will, as one outcome, bring about change in how students learn, and thus in what kind of motivation they then need.

The method of choosing appropriate strategies and positioning them inside the model was entirely based on what made sense to me. A case could easily be made to move strategies to different locations in the lists, or to alter the strategies on the list, and, in the absence of further research, this effort should be taken at best as a potentially useful working model.


Stages and Strategies


This paper posits that certain motivational strategies are matched with students who are at a certain level of self-direction. Consequently, applying strategies from a different stage may well create a mismatch. “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed” mapped those mismatches in the following figure:

Figure 2. Match and Mismatch between Learner Stages and Teacher Styles. From “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed” by Gerald Grow.


The figure indicates two extreme mismatches – an independent student coupled with a directive teacher, and a dependent student coupled with a non-directive teacher. Taken together, these two mismatches frame the broader area in which teachers and students are matched, or nearly matched.

Expanding on the original paper, consider how the extreme mismatches might play out in terms of motivation. In the T1-S4 mismatch, a directive teacher might present an independent learner with motivational strategies such as these:

Give detailed instructions and explanations; break assignments into small steps. (A)

Organize materials on an increasing level of difficulty; that is, structure the learning material to provide a “conquerable challenge.”   (K)

Make the first experience with the subject as positive as possible. (W)

Provide close guidance during initial practice. (A)

Ensure successful learning. (W) Frequently check for student understanding. (A)

Reward incremental steps toward larger goals. (G)

Consider the use of extrinsic reinforcers for routine, well-learned activities, complex skill building, and drill-and-practice activities. (W)

Reward boring tasks with extrinsic, anticipated rewards. (K) Use incentives to encourage participation in learning activities that are initially unattractive. (W)

Such strategies, I argue, are likely to feel out of place to an experienced learner, if not actually demeaning. This kind of motivation would require the more independent learner to revert to learning more like a middle-school student.

By contrast, in the S1-T4 mismatch, a non-directive teacher might present a dependent learner with motivational strategies such as these:

Expect students to review on their own what they already have learned. (A)

Let students set own short- and long-term goals. (A)

Allow students to set own action plan for how they will complete projects and assignments. (A)

Let students work through difficulties they have on an assignment on their own. (A)

Expect students to reward themselves for intermediate and long-term goal accomplishment. (A)

Provide little or no teacher guidance.

Ask advice of learner. (G)

Give infrequent feedback–mainly at the conclusion of assignments. (A)

In this situation, a dependent learner is likely to feel lost or abandoned, or to pursue goals not effectively related to the requirements of the course. One of the most valuable insights of this model is that a high degree of organization in a course is a helpful way to motivate dependent learners – and that dependent learners may actually be discouraged when presented with motivational methods appropriate for more self-directed learners.

In either case – where students are approached with motivational strategies that are far above, or far below, their capacity – you find a likely situation where students will respond with a lack of interest, subversion, or overt disruption.

Moving Students through the Stages

Matching students at their current level of development is not the entire answer; this matching must always be seen as the first step of two. After matching instruction and motivation to the students’ level, the teacher must then prepare those students to function at a higher degree of self-direction.

Think of it this way: You meet students where they are, in order to begin to teach them the content, skills, and attitudes they need in order to function at a higher level. Then, as you move to more advanced material, you require a greater degree of student self-direction, and you adopt motivational strategies from “higher up the ladder.” In this way, content and teaching methods and motivational strategies remain either matched with the students’ level, or they appear just advanced enough to present a challenge students are capable of meeting.

“Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed” includes discussion of other implications of this model, including one way of approaching a class in which students enter with varying levels of self-direction. Interested readers are urged to review that article with the application of motivational strategies in mind.



Ames, Russell, & Ames, Carole. (1991). “Motivation and Effective Teaching,” in Lorna Idol & Beau Fly Jones (Eds.) Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction: Implications for Reform. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 247-270.

Grow, Gerald O. (1991/1996). “Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed.” Adult Education Quarterly, 41 (3), 125-149. Expanded version available online at: <>.

Heresy, Paul, & Blanchard, Ken. (1988). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Keller, John. (1987) “Development and Use of the ARCS model of Motivational Design,” Journal of Instructional Development, 1987, Vol. 10, No. 3, p. 2 – 10.

Wlodkowski, Raymond J. (1987). Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wyche-Smith, Susan, & Rose, Shirley, K. (1990) One hundred ways to make the Wyoming Resolution a reality. College Composition and Communication, 41 (3), pp. 318-324.

Gerald Grow, Ph.D., was professor of journalism at Florida A&M University from 1985 – 2009.

Note: In retirement, I am no longer developing this paper, so I publish this substantial draft in the hope that it will be of interest to someone.

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